How is mesothelioma diagnosed

Peritoneal Mesothelioma


Is a cancer of the lining of the abdominal cavity is a rare form as the pleura, of which about one-fifth to one third of the total number of diagnosed cases of mesothelioma. According to the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database, these diagnoses to 54.7 percent of men compared to 45.3 percent of women with a mean age of 65 to 69 The latency period appears to be shorter for people exposed to asbestos symptoms occur 20-30 years after exposure, the latency period of 30 to 40 years, most inmates with mesothelioma.

Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma

Clinical symptoms at presentation may include abdominal pain, mass, increased abdominal size, abdominal distension, ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen), fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia and digestive disorders. Some patients complain of nonspecific symptoms in a number of more months before a confirmed diagnosis. In a small percentage of cases, peritoneal mesothelioma is also when the patient has provided assistance to other health issues such as gallbladder, hernia or pelvic mass requested.

Doctors report that patients experience symptoms generally experience from 6 months to 2 years before diagnosis. If the patient to the doctor, patient, family and the doctor is usually all that happens is something else wrong. Men are often the first program with an inguinal hernia (bulge in the groin) or umbilical hernia (bulge around the navel.) The first indication of a problem for some women occurs during a pelvic exam if a tumor is discovered.

Late stages of peritoneal mesothelioma symptoms of intestinal obstruction and the growing tendency of blood clotting. Blood tests show an increase in the number of platelets in the center of peritoneal dialysis patients, although this is of little use for diagnosis, because it can be caused by many diseases. Anemia and low albumin levels are also available.

Diagnosis

As for all mesothelioma cancer can be diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma challenge. The results of the scan can help distinguish between two types of peritoneal mesothelioma clinic, called “dry” or “wet” as appearances are quite different. In the “dry” type is the CT number of small masses or a single dominant localized mass spectacle. There is usually little or no ascites. In the “wet” type of CT can reveal widespread small nodules, but no dominant mass. Ascites is usually present.

If liquid is present, can be removed in a procedure called paracentesis. Unfortunately, as is the case of the analysis of pleural fluid has limited diagnostic value. Usually, a biopsy of tissue from a laparoscopic exploration, a definitive diagnosis.

Staging

There is currently no rating system in place for peritoneal mesothelioma, and when stages of the disease, which is generally performed in accordance with the TNM system, the system most mainstream of cancer staging. This system is based on the status of the tumor (T), lymph nodes (N) and metastasis (M). There are general categories that may also determine something useful on the scene.

The first category shows a lesion to be resected completely (totally eliminated). In the second category is the disease in the abdominal cavity into the peritoneal surface and the organ, where reductive (the distance of the same, but not all of the tumor) is possible. Category three performances of the disease in the abdominal cavity with the invasion of organs such as intestine or liver. Category four shows disease spreads outside the abdominal cavity.

Claire Verschraegen mesothelioma specialists wrote that the peritoneal mesothelioma divided into four categories. For less developed if the tumor has not spread and can be removed by surgery. This is equivalent to the classification R Butchart stage.

The next is when the mesothelioma cancer has spread to regions periconal and organ, and surgery is a reduction in tumor volume, not the eradication of all malignant tissue. The next steps are, if metasticises cancer to other organs, and when he comes in the lymph nodes.

Treatment

In recent years, multimodal treatment of peritoneal mesothelioma become more common to select a patient population, along with surgery alone and / or intraperitoneal chemotherapy equally effective. Reduction surgery (reduction) surgery involves removing all or most of the visible tumor and how to choose the doctor, with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (IPHC), intraperitoneal chemotherapy and radiotherapy are combined. Dr. Paul Sugarbaker wrote “Intraperitoneal chemotherapy gives high response rates in the abdomen because the barrier of the peritoneal space plasma provides intensive therapy to dose.” As it is not always possible to remove all tumors, the prognosis for long-term survival of the entire cytoreduction as determined by the following criteria:

Complete cytoreduction:

CC-0 No peritoneal seeding is appropriate in operational areas.

CC-1 knot less than 2.5 cm after cytoreduction continue. The nodules of this size, it is assumed that by intracavitary chemotherapy, complete cytoreduction called permeable.

incomplete cytoreduction:

CC-2 2.5 to 5 cm nodes remain after cytoreduction.

CC-3 knots more than 5 cm or a group of unresectable tumor nodules at any location in the abdomen or pelvis.

For patients who responded to a serious disease, where surgery is not intended to achieve “healing, reduction of symptoms due to volume reduction. Since peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that require special treatment from doctors about the disease are made.

For more information on systemic therapy for peritoneal mesothelioma.

A recent clinical study showed pemetrexed (Alimta) for an effective agent chemotherapy for the treatment of peritoneal mesothelioma, either alone or with one of platinum-based drugs like cisplatin. This success reflects the recent findings on the treatment of pleural mesothelioma pemetrexed.